Fuerteventura – geography, climate, history

Fuerteventura_coastline
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Fuerteventura, a Spanish island, one of the Canary Islands, in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Africa. It is situated at 28°20′ north, 14°00′ west. The elongated island has an area of 1660 km². The island is 100 km long from and 31 km wide. It is part of the province of Las Palmas.

100 individual settlements are distributed through these municipalities. A nearby islet, Islote de Lobos, is part of the municipality of La Oliva. Located just 100 kilometres off the coast of North Africa. It is the second biggest of the islands, after Tenerife, and has the longest beaches in the archipelago. The island is a paradise for sun, beach and watersports enthusiasts. The island is widely believed to be the oldest of the Canary Islands. Its strange form was created out of a series of volcanic eruptions many thousands of years ago. The first tourist hotel was built here in 1965 followed by the construction of the airport at El Mattoral, heralding the dawn of a new era for the island. Fuerteventura, with its 3,000 sunshine hours a year, was placed firmly on the world stage as a major European holiday destination. The island is on the same latitude as Florida and Mexico and temperatures here rarely fall below 18 °C or rise above 24 °C. There are no less than 152 beaches along its coastline – 50 kilometres of fine, white sand and 25 kilometres of black volcanic shingle. The summer Trade Winds and winter swells of the Atlantic make this a year-round surfers’ paradise. Sailors, scuba divers and big game fishermen are all drawn to these clear blue Atlantic waters where whales, dolphins, marlin and turtles are all common sights. Much of the interior, with its large plains, lavascapes and volcanic mountains, consists of protected areas which can be best be explored in a 4×4 or (for the more daring) with a cross-country motorbike.

Geography

Fuerteventura is the oldest island in the Canary Islands dating back to 20 million years from a volcanic eruption. The majority of the island was created about 5 million years and since then eroded by wind and weather. The last volcanic activity in Fuerteventura was between 4,000 to 5,000 years ago. The highest point in Fuerteventura is Mount Jandía (807 m) in the southwestern part of the island. Geographical features include Istmo de la Pared which is 5 km wide and is the narrowest part of Fuerteventura, the island is divided into two parts, the northern portion which is Maxorata and the southwestern part called the Jandía peninsula. The island is the least settled in the Canary Islands.

Climate

The climate on the island throughout the year is pleasant. The island is also called the island of eternal springs. The sea adjusts the temperature making the hot Sahara winds away from the island of Fuerteventura. High temperatures are around 21 °C in winter months and about 27 °C in the summer months. Low temperatures hover about 15 °C in the winter months and about 20 °C during winter months. Precipitation is about 147 mm per annum. Most of the rainfall falls in the winter. The sandstorm known as the scirocco, Leveche in Spain blows to the southwest from the Sahara desert causing high temperatures and low visibility and drying air. Temperatures during this phenomena rises by 10 degrees Celsius. The wind brings in fine, white sand, visibility drops to about 100 to 200 m or lower, and African [locust]s. The local inhabitants call this phenomena the „Calima”. Fuerteventura_black_sand_beach

Fuerteventura_coastline

Fuerteventura_panorama

Economy

The main economy on Fuerteventura is tourism; other main industries are fishing, agriculture (cereals and vegetables), and businesses. Primary tourist areas are around the existing towns of Corralejo in the north and Morro Jable in Jandia, plus the purely tourist development at Caleta de Fuste south of Puerto del Rosario.

 

History

The island’s colourful past can be traced in a variety of ancient buildings, monuments, archaeological sites and museums. The first settlers are believed to have arrived here from North Africa – the word Mahorero or Maho is still used today to describe the people of Fuerteventura and comes from the ancient word ‚mahos’ meaning a type of goatskin shoe worn by the original inhabitants. They lived in caves and semi-subterranean dwellings, a few of which have been discovered and excavated revealing relics of early tools and pottery. In antiquity, the island was known as Planaria, among other names, in reference to the flatness of most of its landscape. In the 11th century BC, the Phoenician settlers arrived in Fuerteventura and Lanzarote. In 850 BC, the island was mentioned by Homer in the Odyssey, the Canary Islands as Insulae Fortunatae. Several Spanish and Portuguese expeditions occurred in about 1340 around the island and the island were inhabited by Maurs and were afflicted with European slave holders. In 1405, the French conqueror Jean de Bethencourt took the island and gave his name to the former capital, Betancuria, on the west coast (Puerto Rosario took over the mantle as island capital in 1835). The name of the island itself is believed to have come from Bethencourt’s exclamation „Que forte aventure!” („What a grand adventure”). A less romantic explanation is that the name simply means „strong wind”. In 1852, the free trade zone was extened by Isabella II to the Canary Islands. The military rule over the island which began from 1708 dissolved in 1859 and Puerto de Cabras (now Puerto del Rosario) became entirely the new capital. The Canary islands had the right to self-govern in 1912. In 1927, Fuerteventura and Lanzarote became part of the province of Gran Canaria. By the 1940s the island had an airport (just west of Puerto del Rosario on the road to Tindaya, still visible today). Tourism arrived in the mid-1960s with the building of the present airport at El Mattoral and the first tourist hotels. The seat of the island government (cabildo insular) is in Puerto del Rosario. A total of 74,983 people (2003) live on the island. Since the island is close to Africa, many illegal African immigrants try to enter the European Union through it, by a dangerous boat trip from Morocco.

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Sites of interest

The sites of interest includes Corralejo and El Jable to the north which are made up of fine sand dunes, the south is filled with long beaches and remote bays. The constant winds blowing the beaches make the paradise for windsurfing. Water skiing is common in the west coast where there are large waves. Windsurfing is common north of Corralejo or at the north coast. At Cofete on the western side of Jandía a remote and imposing house – Villa Winter – looks out to sea across wide & generally empty beaches. It was reputedly built by a Herr Winter on land given by Generalissimo Franco. In January 18, 1994, the luxury liner SS America (once was USS Westpoint) was abandoned and left in Playa de Garcey. Better known as The American Star, conspiracy theories abound as to how the ship came to be wrecked there.

Source: wikipedia.org; CC License

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